Wight of the Nine Worlds


I welcome thee free spirit, which thou shalt come with an open heart, open mind and an open soul, for what you are about to read can only be understood by the wise who are eager to learn and to embrace the roots deep and forgotten in the hearts of the free people of Europe, by accepting who you are and where your roots lie, is half way into the great road of life. We will journey unto where our spirit takes us with the knowledge we gained. Learn and teach.

What is Animism?

I know I've abandoned this blog some time ago, but most of you are now with me at my Youtube Channel, or continued to support me on the Patreon platform. Even so, if any one still comes here, or by chance comes across this blog seeking something concerning paganism, and you don't yet know about my work, I leave this video here because I think it might contain useful information for those stepping into paganism and want to understand the essence of it, the way of thinking.

I think this video contains some useful information to understand the basics of paganism. It seems to me, nowadays, most neo-pagan movements and neo-pagan thinking is simply an extent of monotheistic world-denying views; there's still the tendency to follow the same line of thought. Neo-paganism in great part seems like a "paganization" of Near-Eastern monotheisms - worshiping the gods as if they were our personal servents and we make demands from, and there is still a great spiritual detachment from our reality and people still seek a spiritual-realm elsews.ewhere, as I often hear: "Middle-Earth is not for me! Valhalla awaits me!". I think by understanding Animism we can better grasp part of the pagan consciousness, and it is a way to start gaining world-accepting views.

VIKINGS: Björn Ironside Facial Tattoo Meaning

As you know, I'm no longer here on this blog due to lack of time for some writing; as an archaeologist that profession takes much of my time, but you can still find my work and my posts in a variety of other social media that I shall leave the links in this post.

My good friends, I've made a post on my Patreon about the meaning of Björn's facial tattoo on the TV series VIKINGS. I'll leave the link down below to that post because it's open to the public:

Click here: VIKINGS: Björn Ironside Facial Tattoo Meaning

Consider being my patron for more posts and academic works of mine. Thank you very much for the support!

My Social Media:

My Patreon

Youtube Channel


Facebook Page






Will You be my Patron?

Now is the chance for you to become my Patron!

If you wish to directly help me in appreciation for the work I do on My Youtube Channel , now you can become my Patron and send me whatever amount you want so I can continue to provide content. Let’s face it, being an Archaeologist doesn’t pay the bills at all, unfortunately, and I’m currently working as a independent researcher, which means I earn absolutely nothing;  I actually spend my own to be an archaeologist and provide history to the public.

So just go to My Patron , and support me my dear friend. Thank you in advance. Being my Patron also means you will have access to exclusive content.

Best Regards

Arith Härger

The Cult of Odin in the North

Watch the previous video here: [The Cult of Odin]

Watch the video about this post here: [The Cult of Odin in the North]

When we talk about Norse mythology the first name that comes to mind is Odin. It’s inevitable.

Since the 13th century Odin was transformed into a figure closely related to the Christian god, because that was the religious reality in Europe at that time, and people are prone to create patterns that are related to the social reality they live in. Also, in an Era very much influenced by Christianity in every field, if you wanted to talk about pagan stuff you had better include Christian values and morals, or having a very Christian speech in the pagan tales so people would better understand the religious sense behind the mythological accounts, so they could compare it with their religious reality.

Since then, Odin was completely transformed into a Christian figure with some old pagan traits. People became familiarized with Odin because the main religion of medieval Europe was Christianity and Odin resembled the Christian god. This went on until nowadays and even now most pagans, who follow the northern European pagan traditions, can’t detach themselves from this Christian comprehension of the god Odin. People are not to be blamed because in a society so deeply rooted in Christianity, unconsciously people end up absorbing Christian values and become Christians, and when jumping into a pagan spirituality, they hold on to something spiritual that it’s still familiar to them.

I want to show you that Odin wasn’t always the Alfather, the wisest of all gods, not even the king of the gods and the cosmos itself did not turn around the pure will of Odin. He was not the central figure.

The cult of Odin was not indigenous in the North. The time when this deity was introduced in Scandinavia is difficult to say. It was obviously before the Viking Age, probably the closest date is somewhere around the late 5th century and the beginning of the 6th, arriving in Britain with the Saxons and reaching what is now Norway and Sweden by way of Denmark.
However, when the cult of Odin arrived in Scandinavia, this god wasn’t the central point of Norse mythology before the Viking Age. Only during the Viking Age Odin became one of the most, if not the most, important deity of Norse mythology, and from that moment on the Norse tradition started to change greatly and focusing and turning around Odin.

If we take a look at the oldest poems referring Odin, like Beowulf for instance, dating between the 8th and the 11th centuries, and also the Volsunga Saga, which is a late 13th century Icelandic prose work but there are representations of the story in stone dating to the 11th century… well, in these stories we see Odin is indeed the major deity and the heroes in such stories are closely connected with Odin. So based on such accounts, Odin only became an important deity during the 8th century. Which makes Odin’s importance in Scandinavian society quite new in Scandinavian history. The god that everyone speaks about, everyone thinks about when talking about Scandinavian mythology, is actually not that old. But obviously we have to be aware that all these sagas and poems before being put to parchment or even carved in stone, belonged to the oral tradition, and therefore are much older. This deity is much older.

So if we turn to archaeology and historical records to support the findings, we may come to the conclusion that perhaps Odin in the North and in the religious context, is much older that the 8th century.

The customs associated with Odin might give us some answers.

Sacrificial hanging was practiced in Sweden about the end of the 5th century, and even though Scandinavia was never romanised, people were aware of each other. There are historical references that the practice of hanging as a distinctly sacrificial act, was attributed to Scandinavians. Human victims were sacrificed in this way to the god of war. The roman historical references do not speak about the name of the deity, it is compared to the Greek god of war Ares, and so it could mean Tyr, the Norse god of war. But there are little evidences about that. Tyr in archaeological terms is an unimportant figure in the Norse mythology. There are no archaeological evidences of sacrifices to Tyr. Human sacrifices at least. Human sacrifices by hanging and offered to the god of war, can only be to Odin.

This shows us that the Cult of Odin was already practiced in the north at the beginning of the 6th century, and that is perhaps the date when he was introduced in the north. But mind that I’m talking about the Cult of Odin and not the deity itself.

What I’m saying here is not that Odin is a young deity, younger than the Christian god even. No. Odin, or Wodanaz, was a Germanic deity, a god of war and death, but he did not exist in a Scandinavian religious concept before the invading Germanic tribes.

Obviously throughout history people came and went from place t place and there is a possibility that Odin was known in Scandinavia during the Nordic Bronze Age, between 1500 – 500 BCE. Which was an age when the Nordics imported lots of gold and bronze from central Europe, and the Scandinavians adopted many central European and Mediterranean religious symbol, and also objects, technology and artistic styles.

The Bronze Age was also an age of war and all over Europe the cultures and traditions were around war. So the concept of Odin as a god of war ONLY, might have been introduced in Scandinavia since the Bronze Age, but the Scandinavians, especially the Swedes, maintained Freyr as their most important and highly worshiped deity.

So in conclusion, Odin was a god of war in Germanic societies, especially in central Europe, during the Bronze Age. The cult of Odin in Scandinavia, seems to only have been introduced during the 6th century of our era, but this doesn’t mean that his cult was something new at this time, but started to be introduced in the major religious events during the end of the 5th century and the beginning of the 6th. Odin only became a major deity during the Viking Age, and during the 13th century and with the influence of Christianity, Odin became the Alfather, associated with creation. So there seems to have been an increasing in the importance this deity had in the old Scandinavian societies.

Viking warrior-women existed?

You may ask: Arith, why in the devil would you pose this question? Well, it might seem strange, but till now there were no physical evidences to support the existence of Viking warrior-women.

My Social Media:

The Cult of Odin

You can watch the video about this subject in here: [The Cult of Odin]

I will divide this short essay into three parts. First I’ll talk about Odin historically, his introduction in the old societies and the meaning of his name. Then, some of Odin’s aspects as a god of war, nobility and shamanism, focusing on certain characteristics. And finally, on the third part, I will talk about the Cult of Odin. I think the last part is the one you will like the most. So much blood and sacrifices.

Odin is one of the most complex deities of the Norse pantheon, perhaps because his cult was spread throughout so many different social and religious realities that this deity ended up being introduced in every pre-Christian religious cult of Scandinavia, and absorbed the functions of other gods.
But first things first:

Odin is the ruler of the tribe of gods called the Aesir. He is a god that often goes into journeys, wandering throughout the nine cosmic worlds seeking for knowledge, in a relentless selfinterested pursuit for wisdom. And because he is a god so committed to obtain wisdom, he doesn't care how he obtains it, so he is often depicted as a god with no regards for values, justice, law, fairness, respect and even the safety and well-being of others. If he has to ruin lives or even kill for wisdom, he will do it. 

He is a god associated with war and death. A god associated with nobility, poetry, wisdom, spellcraft, sorcery, magic in general and much like Loki, Odin is also a master of disguise and trickery and shapeshifting. 

He's a god associated with so much stuff and often things that contradict themselves and have no connection, that we often wonder how is it possible for one single deity to embody all of the qualities and fields of expertise, I've just mentioned, all at once? Well, he was a god worshipped for many centuries all over Scandinavia and Continental Europe, mostly central Europe. So it's normal that this deity took the "job" of other local deities when he was introduced into local cults. And to better understand this, let's take a look at what his name means.

Wodan is the elder form of the name of this deity, associated with several shamanic functions. He is associated with the dead and those who are slain (especially in battle). He appears as a wild rider at the head of an otherworldly pursuit, the leader of the Wild Hunt, and also a god associated with storms and strong winds. 

The name Wodan comes from Old High German wuot, insane.
From wods, angry, obsessed. 

Old English wod, raving. Wod also means sound, voice, poetry, and odr – poetry. 

And in modern German, Wut, meaning anger, rage, fury, wrath. 

So the concept of his older name is associated with madness, obsession, and ecstatic frenzy. But the name Wodan has other variations, such as Wode, Wotan, Woide, Wods, Wuotes and so on, apparently all linked to either shamanic trance or the brain condition necessary to enter in a trance state, through madness, insanity.
Now, the Germanic Wodan is not like the Norse Odin, the chief of the gods. The continental god leads the wild hunt, a horrific, ghostly cavalcade of spirits, elves, some deities and the dead. 

Wodan is a god of rage and ecstasy, a god who made warriors enter in a state of madness while in battle, turning his chosen warriors into wolves or bears, and us such he became the favourite and most important god among many war-like tribes. These tribes invaded Scandinavia. As conquerors, they installed their order and their god became the chief deity, king of the gods, and the father of all. And just like this, Odin was introduced into Scandinavia and a new god was born there. Odin. 

Now, before Odin, Fricco, or Freyr, was one of the most popular and highly worshipped deities in Scandinavia, especially in Sweden. He was the chief god of the old Swedes before invading tribes introduced the cult of Wodan. In the process, Woden lost the W and became Odin, while Freyr lost much of his importance and became a minor farmers’ god while the nobility worshipped and sacrificed to Odin. 

In Scandinavia we see Odin with many names, many titles, such as Hertýr, god of the army, Valgautr, god of the battle-slain, Hrafnagud, ravengod, Grimnir, masked one, Báleygr, flame eye, and so on. A variety of names meaning completely different things and others which we still don’t know the meaning. It’s a long, long list. Which shows us that many independent local gods were integrated in the cult of Odin.

Odin remained with many of his old continental characteristics, along with new characteristics from Scandinavia and through time he still remained so important in the Scandinavian societies that even during medieval times he continued to be associated with other things. According to the social reality of each period in history, he became associated with more stuff. For instance, in continental Europe he was associated with the dead and spirits, but to the Germanic tribes there was no concept of a warrior-heaven.
A place in the after-life solely for warriors is a concept that few European cultures had, only some Celt-Iberian tribes and the Erulians had this concept. Valhalla was something new introduced in this cult. To the Germanic tribes there was no need to have a heroic death in the battlefield. 

Another example, in Iceland during medieval times Odin became associated with magic, spell work, sorcery, even Seidr. We must not forget that in the old Scandinavian pagan societies, seidr was seen as the province of women and it was not honourable not even manly for a men to practice Seidr, men who practice seidr were considered effeminate and it was an insult, they were called Ergi, unmanly, effeminate. But all of a sudden Odin becomes associated with such practices, a male god, he gains prominent effeminate qualities that would have brought unspeakable shame to any ancient Norse warrior. Well, in medieval Iceland this was no longer a social problem, and since Christianity didn’t let people practice magic, people needed a patron god of magic, and thus Odin being the most famous deity of the old gods, he also became associated with sorcery, witchcraft.

So, recapitulating, the mainland Woden was an important deity, but not a patriarchal chief of the gods such as the Scandinavian Odin. He changed from a storm god, Wode, to a god of ecstasy and rage, Wodan, to a god of rulers and warriors, Odin. And kept on changing, and I dare say that he will change again to assume a form that fits in our time and our present realities.

After this introduction, let's take a look at some of Odin's fields of expertise, and I'll try to be brief on that.

As a god of war, he encourages the process of war, he inspires people to do war. He needs people to do war because that's how he obtains warriors for his personal army. Dying gloriously in battle is the only way to go to Odin in the literal sources. However, he isn't a god that concerns himself with every warrior. Only those who he deems to be worthy, he will help and bestow his blessings to them, mainly legendary heroes, people that stand out and become really good at killing and in the arts of war. But he also maintains a close connection with shamanic-warriors, such as berserkers. Warriors who combine fighting techniques with spiritual practices, achieving a state of ecstasy, but focused solely on the cult of Odin, which also includes working with animal totems, mainly bears and wolves, which are the animals associated with Odin, and as I've told you, the remnants of the continental characteristic of this deity. As a god of war, he isn't like Týr, concerned with the war itself, the reasons behind a conflict, or even the rules, honour and the deeds involved. In terms of war, Odin is concerned with the chaotic battle-frenzy, the very force, essence, state of mind, achieved through the madness of battle, through violent acts, uncontrollable rage and fury bringing out the beast in us.

As a god associated with sovereignty and nobility, he is the divine archetype of a ruler. As I've told you before, since he was the main god of the invading Germanic tribes, he became the god associated with power. This is an interesting aspect, because when Christianity came along, the first to be converted were the rulers, chieftains, kings and emperors, the high power of the society, while the people from rural areas, the countryside, practically forgotten by such high powers, continued to be pagans. This is exactly what happened in ancient Scandinavia. The high powers adopted Odin as the main god, chief of all the gods, the “Alfather”, while in rural areas people maintained their older gods, such as Freyr which became associated with agriculture because of that. So even in the ancient pagan societies, pagans adopted another sort of paganism while in the countryside people remained more pagan than the pagans.

The Norse society, much like many ancient societies, was socially and politically divided into three groups. Rulers, warriors and farmers. So the gods were also divided into these three groups. And Odin being the god of nobility, obviously he was set on the top of this hierarchical society. So he became the king of the gods. Odin in Scandinavia became linked to the nobility, and as such he became the legendary founder of numerous royal lines, and the Scandinavians tried to pass this into their mythologies, introducing Odin as the creator of the first humans, along with his two brothers, or these three characters being three different aspects of the same deity. 

As a god associated with wisdom and shamanism, it's quite interesting:
The wisdom aspect is one of the things that differentiates him from being the all-powerful-god. You see, many people nowadays see Odin almost as the only god that matters. Many people in Asatru practice Odinism, focusing only on this god almost to the point of turning Polytheism into a monotheistic religion. But what happens in a monotheistic religion is that the only existing god is the all-knowing and all-powerful, while Odin show us that he himself has limitations. That's the beauty of Polytheism, the gods much like us, in their own individuality have limits, and that's why Odin is always seeking for knowledge, to overcome his limitations on every field, obsessed with obtaining wisdom because he is restless when a problem comes along and he has no power. He sets out in a relentless and ruthless quest for more wisdom, more knowledge, more power, and whoever stands in his way, he immediately takes them out of the game. And well, most of the knowledge he gains is usually of a magical sort. 

And of course, as you know, he sacrificed an eye for wisdom and at a certain point he sacrificed himself, hanging on a tree and stabbing himself with his own spear. To achieve the knowledge of the runes. An old reminder of ancient shamanic practices and techniques of inducing an altered state of consciousness through a violent ordeal, through a near-death experience.

In terms of shamanism, along with the goddess Freyja, he’s one of the two greatest practitioners of shamanism amongst the gods. He learns this art from Freyja herself, which reminds us of the social stigma of only women were allowed to practice seidr, a form of shamanism, in the ancient Scandinavian societies. And in many accounts we have hints of Odin's shamanic journeys, especially when he uses his eight-legged horse Sleipnir. An eight-legged horse is a typical symbol of northern Eurasian shamanism.
Also, when we deal with shamanism, almost every time we will come across shamans who are accompanied with familiar spirits, not just animals and land spirits, but other beings. Odin is always closely associated with wolves and ravens, animals who are his companions all the time, and also other spiritual entities associated with him, such as Valkyries. And as I've said before, I've already talked about shamanic-warriors, which was the type of shamanism socially acceptable for men in Germanic societies.

As a god of Poetry, in the Ynglinga Saga for instance, Odin is celebrated as the inventor of poetry (skaldskapr), and also experienced in Galdr or Galdar, spells, incantations, and of course, and also, the master of runes. 

Odin is a master of poems and he grants this gift to others he deems to be worthy. And the story of how he became a master of speech, and mind that this is closely associated with Galdr, the power to persuade through words of incantation, well, the story his quite interesting because he obtained the mead of poetry, and in old Norse the name of this mead was Odroerir, closely associated with the word Odr, which not only is one of Odin's names but also the very word connected to ecstasy, fury, inspiration. This Mead of Poetry might be an old reference to an Intoxicating drink which helped to alter the state of consciousness, to achieve ecstasy, inspiration and obtain knowledge.

In terms of being a god associated with the dead, he is a divine figure who guides those who have just died and go to the underworld. And this aspect might be older than his aspect of being a god of war. As I've told you, Valhalla was a later concept, and unknown in continental Europe, which was later introduced, meant to motivate warriors into suicidal fighting rages. 

Odin continued to be associated with the dead even during medieval and modern periods in Scandinavian history, quite possibly an old characteristic of this god because he was already associated with death and the dead before his cult was introduced in Scandinavia. And we also have notes of him communicating with the dead, raising the dead, so he seems to have been a powerful necromancer.

Now let’s talk about the cult of Odin or the perception we have of it in archaeological findings and the study of the written sources.

The cult of Odin in the north involved sacrifices, mostly in times of war, and the victims were always humans, either volunteers or prisoners. This doesn’t mean that animals weren’t also sacrificed, they were, but humans were always sacrificed to Odin while animals were sacrificed occasionally or were mostly used as sacrifices to other deities. However, I must add, the number of examples we have of human sacrifices to Odin, are small. I mean, there are a lot of examples but they seem small compared to the span of time during which Odin was considered the major deity. But anyway, in all the examples we have of sacrifices to Odin they are always human sacrifices. Let me give you at least 4 examples:

King Vikar, in order to win against a neighbouring enemy, a priest of Odin was sent out into the forest to seek the answer from Odin. Through divination and in a vision, Odin tells the priest that he requires a man out of their company in exchange for his blessing to ensure victory. Odin choses King Vikar himself and instructs how he is to be sent to him. Hanged and stabbed. King Vikar was Hanged and stabbed and thus he was given to Odin. This sacrificed ensured King Vikar’s army victory, although he wasn’t around to celebrate it.

Aun, King of Sweden, sacrificed one of his 10 sons every few years. He lived long indeed because out of those 10 he sacrificed 9.

During the reign of Ólafr Trételgi, there was a famine and people attributed that to the lack of sacrifice made by Olafr. They burnt him in his house and offered the sacrifice to Odin so they could have plenty. Sure enough, the famine was over.

King Haraldr was also a king plagued with a famine during his reign. Through divination it was found that the gamine could be stopped by the sacrifice of the noblest youth in the land. The son of a noble was required, Angantýr son of Heidrekr. Now this one is interesting, because Angantýr is very similar to Hangatýr, which is one of Odin’s names, meaning God of the Hanged. Anyway, Heidrekr refused to give away that son, so he gave his other son Halfdan and to compensate the fact of not giving the one Odin required, he also gave all the host in Halfdan’s commend, as a sacrifice. The temples were covered with the blood of the ones who were sacrificed.

As you can see by these four example, it always involved the sacrificed of humans and from the nobility, since Odin was worshipped by the nobility, being a god associated with this social class. Also, Odin didn’t want a nobody to be sacrificed to him, he chose those from nobility which he required, and indeed in archaeological findings and in the comprehension we have of the ancient Scandinavian beliefs, we see that only warriors who died in battle and nobles, were allowed to go into Valhalla.

In addition to sacrifices of this sort, there were 3 great annual sacrifices in ancient Scandinavia. 

At the approach of winter, a sacrifice for plenty. At midwinter, for increase of the crops. And at the beginning of summer, a sacrifice for victory, sigrblot. Quite possibly these 3 sacrifices were made to the three major gods of Scandinavia at that time. The sacrifice from plenty was to the god Freyr, the sacrifice for increase of the crops to Thor, and the sacrifice for victory to Odin, because of the constant references to him as the god of victory and sacrifices and vows were made to Odin for victory in times of war.
There were also sacrifices in great scale every nine years at Uppsala, at which sacrifices of men and various animals were offered. These sacrifices took place about the spring equinox, coinciding with the annual sacrifice for victory. Both men and animals were hanged in the grove close to the temple. Of the animals hanged, most were not edible ones, such as dogs, horses and hawks. Nine male animals hanged with humans. Of course, speaking of edible animals, in Scandinavia horse meat was also consumed, but it’s quite different. Edible animals were sacrificed to Freyr, while Odin required nobler animals, animals that were used by nobility and were to be taken with the sacrificed people into Valhalla, to serve them there, hence, dogs for hunting, horses to ride, and hawks for hunting but also as animals linked to activities performed by the nobility.

Several cases of hanging occur in the cycle of stories involving criminals. It was customary to sacrifice prisoners to Odin on the battlefield. The sacrifices at Uppsala were sacred, so most likely the sacrificed ones were of noble birth and no criminals, neither prisoners nor slaves were sacrificed there. But in a battlefield, or any other place when victory was needed, criminals were sacrificed to Odin.

You might be asking if hanged people were really just sacrifices for Odin. Maybe it was for other deities? 

There are no other evidences of hanging people and offering them to other gods. Hanged people were to Odin and Odin alone. For instance, there were human sacrifices to Thor, but these appear to have been put to death by being felled with a club. Yes . . . beat them to death with a club. 

Odin is constantly being associated with the gallows, as we can see by some of his names. Galga Framr, burden of the gallows, galga gramr, galga valda, Hanga Drottinn, Hangatýr, Hanga gud, Lord or god or the gallows of the hanged.

It is possible that the slain victims to offer as a sacrifice to Odin were not criminals and or slaves. Because when sacrificing to Odin, people would automatically go to Valhalla and to go there they needed goods and animals of valour. Thats why nobility was chosen. But of course, once in a while criminals would be sacrificed but on another context, and slaves were often sacrificed with their masters. Sacrificing slaves separately was most certainly as offers to Thor, because it is to Thor’s Hall that slaves will go, to be servants in his hall. 

Also, there are references of criminals being sacrificed alongside wolves, and not dogs. Dogs had a purpose, they were useful and were used in the afterlife by the nobility. So hanging wolves was with criminals was a way to socially show that those hanged there were not nobles, and the people hanged couldn’t use those animals in the afterlife, and also wolves instead of dogs were sacrificed with criminals in order to disgrace the victims on their arrival into the other side, maybe so Odin might now that those cannot enter Valhalla.

The sacrifices of Odin often involved hanging but there was also stabbing, although both at the same time was not common, or, stabbing and hanging at the same time was the ritual in important sacrifices to Odin. But few are the accounts of both at the same time. Although stabbing as a sacrifice to Odin was a reality, especially with a javelin, and we have many references in the myths, such as Odin’s weapon which a lot of people refer to as a spear, but it was a javelin. Odin throws his javelin over the army who is going to perish, Odin stabs himself with his javelin, and there are references of dying people and others with perfectly good health, being marked with a javelin, as a mark to be sent to the gods. So hanging might have come later. 

Marking the victims with a javelin might have been a form of dedicating the victim to Odin before the sacrifice, which was hanging. Both at the same time might have been the ordinary ceremony of sacrifice.

In terms of funeral rites, and I promise I’ll be brief because this video is already too long and I’m afraid I’m losing your interest. Well, for instance in the Ynglinga Saga we have references of funeral rites dedicated to Odin, or how they should be conducted in order to send the dead to Odin. 

Burning the dead in a pyre along with their earthly positions, to take them into Valhalla, and also what the deceased during life buried in the earth, mostly treasures, which could also be included as earthly goods to be taken into the other side. The items thrown into the pyre included weapons, jewellery, animals and occasionally servants. The animals also included those owned 
by the deceased. There are accounts of horses being taken into the burial mound and sacrificed there and placed in the burial mound. 

Well, I’m getting ahead of myself. I’m speaking about burial mounds because after the deceased was cremated, the ashes were either thrown into the sea or buried down in the earth, and a mound was to be raised as a memorial to noblemen, and people who achieved any distinction during life, a Bautasten should be raised, a reference to a Scandinavian menhir which probably gave birth to the rune-stones in memory of people who during life achieved something great.

Ragnarök in the Bible?

You can watch the video about this subject in here: [Ragnarök Video]

Let’s start with the most obvious question: What is Ragnarök? If we want to have a shallow idea of what it is, well, it’s simply the end of the world as we know it. But of course I’m not here to give you a simple explanation.

For some people Ragnarök already happened, if we understand that after this chaotic event, a Golden Age will begin, an age of peace and compassion, the rebirth of the earth and a new prosperous world. More or less 10.000 years ago the Ice Age finally came to an end, and we progressively stopped being hunters and gatherers and began to tame the land through agriculture and pastoralism. Controlling the earth and flora and the domestication of the fauna, was a great step to the so called progress of civilization, and our dominion over the earth is leading to its destruction and the extinction of many species. In the long run, this is Ragnarök, a battle of more than 10.000 years. Humanity versus nature, and we are actually winning and accelerating our doom, but intelligent as we are, we are finding better solutions to reduce the stain upon the earth that we left, so in other words we are now progressivity walking towards a Golden Age.

This is just one perspective of what Ragnarök might be if we take a look at our nowadays reality.

Due to the popularity of Norse mythology and the history of the Viking Age, today in the movies, television, literature and games, many people who until then did not know the myths, or knew little about it, became more interested in the subject. So before I jump to something a little bit more complex, I'll first try to give you a simple and straightforward comprehension of what Ragnarök is.

First things first, Ragnarök is a myth of Nordic origins, created by the peoples of medieval Scandinavia. It might be a myth with older origins, but as it reach us today, the whole concept seems much more medieval than prehistoric. In the middle Ages, between the V and XI centuries, between the Vendel Period (V-VIII) and the Viking Era (VIII-XI), the Norse mythology took shape and was developed into the perspective we have on the written sources. The Medieval interpretation of Ragnarök refers to future events in an unspecified period of time, in which catastrophic events will occur that will profoundly change the world as we know it. All stories must have an end, but just like in every mythological account and also religious interpretations, Ragnarök isn't the end of time, rather it's an event with a purpose, a period of change.

We must not forget that the written sources we have to read about Ragnarök, were sources written in medieval Iceland during the thirteenth century, a period in Iceland's history already greatly influenced by Christianity, and the entire idea of Ragnarök seems a lot like the "End of Times" Prophecy as it is written in the Bible. So let's take a look into some similarities:
Before Ragnarök actually happens, there will be a great winter that will last three years. In here we can see the Icelandic perspective of things. A great portion of mythological accounts are shaped by the geographical realities people live in. So a world of Ice and frost is a harsh reality for Scandinavian peoples, especially during medieval times. Iceland itself all around is filled with glaciers and volcanic activity, so fire and ice is the perfect combination for the end of times in an Icelandic perspective.

But after this long winter, humanity shall rise up and fight each other, great and terrible wars, in the Bible that’s what happens before the end of days - War on a large scale (Matthew 24:7; Revelation 6:4.). If you study military medieval history, you know that the greatest fear of war during medieval times wasn’t the war itself but famine which led to an increasing of crime (Famine: Matthew 24:7; Revelation 6:5, 6.; Increase of crime: Matthew 24:12.) Before Ragnarök the survivors of the great wars will only have morning dew to feed on (Vafþrúðnismál). During this time the Prose Edda speaks of incest as one of the things that will occur, “siblings do incest”, and also in the Völuspá speaks of the sons between brothers and sisters that will stain kinship, as we also have in the Bible during the “end of days” – “Breakdown of the family, with people who have “no natural affection”” (2 Timothy 3:2, 3.). Then we have great earthquakes also in the Bible (Luke 21:11.) and in the Prose Edda as I will quote: “The whole surface of the earth and the mountains will tremble so that the trees will be uprooted from the ground, mountains will crash down”. In the Völupá a fear will quake all when Heimdall blows the great horn Ghallarhorn, and Yggdrasil itself shakes. We also have this reference to earthquakes in the Poetic Edda. I could go on with more similarities between the Bible’s “End of Days” Prophecy and the Norse Ragnarök, like that part when the dead will walk the earth again as it says in the Bible, and during Ragnarök the great ship Naglfar will come, built with the nails of the dead, and possibly bringing the dead along, because the dead from the realm of Hel will also be in great activity during these catastrophic events. And as I’ve said, mankind in its process of civilization and the attempted to control the earth is destroying the earth itself, it’s a point which isn’t referred in the Nordic sources but it’s referred in the Bible - The ruining of the earth by mankind (Revelation 11:18.).

All this to tell you that the perspective we have of Ragnarök was greatly influenced by Christianity, when the old pagan world started to be forgotten and a new spiritual reality was being formed, adopted by the pagans, and in most cases forced by the social, political and economic circumstances of Medieval Europe.

We humans are prone to see patterns in everything, but I must tell you, even if there are clear influences of another religion into pagan mythological accounts, we must take into account that this is a tale that was around before Christianity and even before the written word. In Christianity mythology the world will be destroyed once and for all and historical time is abolished. But in the tale of Ragnarok we see a very different message. 

The accounts of the destruction of the world in the Old Norse primary sources are immediately followed by accounts of its re-creation. There is no end of the linear history. What Ragnarok describes is a cyclical end of the world, after which follows a new creation, which will in turn be followed by another Ragnarok, and this will keep happening forever. This specific point makes all the difference between the two religious realities. Christianity that does not accept reality and there must be an end and it's all over, and the Norse paganism that accepts reality and that life will go on no matter what, but there always must exist a balance, order and chaos, creation and destruction, life and death.