Wight of the Nine Worlds


I welcome thee free spirit, which thou shalt come with an open heart, open mind and an open soul, for what you are about to read can only be understood by the wise who are eager to learn and to embrace the roots deep and forgotten in the hearts of the free people of Europe, by accepting who you are and where your roots lie, is half way into the great road of life. We will journey unto where our spirit takes us with the knowledge we gained. Learn and teach.

Happy New Year!

I wish you all a happy new year and I want to thank you friends for all the support and feedback.  May this new year brings us all joy and fulfillment, and may we accomplish most of (if not all) our dreams and goals... and burn the calories gained during this season from all the sweets hehe. See you next year! :D

Working with the gods: Týr

The first thing that comes in mind when talking about Tyr, is that he is a god of war from the Norse pantheon, but there is more about him than just that shallow knowledge of being a war-like deity. Tyr the one-handed god is also the god of honor and justice. Forseti is also the god of justice, but Tyr's justice is more harsh and somethimes ruthless.
In Norse mythology Tyr is a god of honor and law, he is a deity of heroic-glory, a warrior god.
Tyr is a very popular deity, much as Odin and Thor are, but few really know anything about this god aside from also being a god of war, or his story of how he lost his hand, in truth it is really hard to know anything about him at all, for his origins are shrouded in mystery. There are two versions about Tyr's origins, one is that he is one of the sons of Odin and an unknown mother, the other is that he is a Jotnar, or of Jotun blood, the son of Hymir and Hrod, but after he reached adulthood, he turned his allegiance to the Aesir tribe of gods, it is even said that Tyr himself stole his father's own kettle so that the Aesir could have more beer while feasting in Aegir’s halls. Whatever oringins Tyr might have, these two stories might indeed be both true, for Odin has a few adopted children and Týr could be one of those.
From an historical point of view, Tyr might actually be one of the Germanic deities more revered, he might even be the deity of the sky with the power over all the other gods because his name simply means “god”, and is related to the Old English Tiw, or the Old High German Ziu, the Middle Germanic god Tuisto, and the Proto-Indo-European Teiwaz, which has a rune of the same name. These are also related to the Latin deus and the Sanskrit deva. So Tyr may once have been a "global" Sky God,  who eventually gained more personal characteristics and was “reborn” into the Norse pantheons as a War God and God of Honor. justice and law. There is some evidence that the Germanic version of Teiwaz had a consort, referred to as Zisu, which was simply a feminization of his name. 
As I have said before and everyone knows that, Tyr is the one-handed god, this fact his his main myth aside to the one where he stole his family’s great cauldron, but the story of losing his hand is the story that confirmed his status as a God of Honor. 
When the Aesir decided that the dangerous wolf-God of destruction, Fenrir, had to be chained, they created a magical chain to bind him, named Gleipnir. They cornered Fenrir and told him that they wanted to see him snap that chain, as he had snapped all others, and the Wolf-God was naturally suspicious, and he told the Gods standing there that he would allow them to bind him, but one of them had to place his hand in his lethal jaws while the binding was being done. Tyr had been a friend to the Fenrir since his kidnapping as a child, and was known to be honorable, so when Tyr stepped up and placed his hand in the wolf’s jaws, Fenrir trusted him. When the chain proved unbreakable, Fenrir flew into a rage and bit Tyr's hand off, which in fact Tyr knew would happen. Since then, Tyr has been referred to as the One-Handed God, and can be easily identified as such in old drawings depicting the Gods.

Tyr is a god that when comes to honor and giving him gifts, he is less interested in offerings of objects and more insterested in actions. To have the courage to face difficulties in life, to be brave and fight any problem that comes in our lifes. Such as Ullr, Tyr is also a god of oaths, so he will not tolerate any oath breaking, not even if it is a small commitment, he will expect you to have a code of honor and stand firm by it.  Understand that if you promise him something in return for his gift, he will expect you to come through. Do not break your word to him, or it will go badly for you. Tyr is never malicious, but he will strike you if he feels that it is necessary. Tyr is one of the best gods to make an oath upon his name, if you are truly sincere and completely sure of what you feel, following your heart, your convictions, being true to yourself and to others, everything bodes well for you. This is also applied to love oaths.
A great offering to him is also the protection of those who do not have the physical or mental strength to protect themselves.
To the old Norse/Germanic peoples, taking care of weapons, not letting them get  dirty or rusty was a way to honor Tyr and later give those weapons as offerings.

Curiosity: In the English language, Tuesday is named after Tyr.

Note: The artwork to illustrate this post is a painting of Tyr made by me. If you have any questions for me or if you want to see my artistic works, check out my Facebook page and make a Like if you can by following this link --> http://www.facebook.com/ArithHarger

The history of Yule to todays Christmas

Yule or Yule-tide, yet another celebration that hasn't anything to do with christianity and we clearly know now that Christ wasn't born on December the 25th. In truth, Yule is a pagan festival that has been held throughout centuries, a winter festival to honor the female deities of the Norse/Germanic peoples, that is where it actually originated. But where do the pagan festivities and the christian beliefs met? and why?

Originally, the night where this festival took place was during the "new year's night" and it was so called Mōdraniht, meaning, Mother Night. During this pagan holiday a sacrifice was made and everyone involved, all the celebrants, would share the feast afterwards. But throughout history people have come together and mingle by means of trade or invasions and people end up adopting customs and ideas from each other. So there came a time in history when the Norse/Germanic lunar calendar was changed by the Julian calendar which was adopted and the date of the Yule festival changed to December the 25th. Since then it has been absorbed into the Christian holiday of Christmas as a form of propaganda, so the pagan peoples wouldn't feel much changes and still held their celebrations but now turned to a different faith and a different deity, slowly forgeting the old traditions by the force of habit, replacing their beliefs by foreign ones. Nowadays these pagan festivities have emerged again and it is now celebrated among Wiccans, and Pagans of Europe or European descendance during the winter solstice on December 21st. It is believed that the pagan Yule festival was influenced by both the Wild Hunt and the Roman winter festival of Saturnalia.
The Wild Hunt goes by many names, and its connection to Yule goes fat back to the folklore myth / legend of Odin's Hunt, and the most known versions of it are the christianized ones. "The legend is that a group of huntsmen with hounds and horses make a mad dash across the ground or through the sky in pursuit of something unknown. The huntsmen, depending on the folklore, are often undead, demon possessed clergy or fairies of the underworld. The legend goes on to warn mortals from viewing the hunt because if one sees it, a catastrophic event such as the plague, famine, or war could follow. Another warning in the legend against the viewing of the Wild Hunt is that the spirit or soul could be grabbed by the riders and taken to the underworld." The vision of the Wild Hunt takes place during the time of the year when the wind blows the strongest and storms begin to form.Odin's Hunt begins on October 31st and ends on May Eve or April 30th. However, the height of the hunt takes place on Yule, the shortest day of the year. Odin and his Valkyries ride across the sky searching for those worthy to join the ride, many heroes of old also join this hunt, along with the Einherjar, the Elite warriors of Odin. Also this is the time when souls are "collected" and bought to the next world. During christianization fear replaced the tales of old and Yule fires were lit to keep the hunters at bay.
Saturnalia was a Roman winter festival with the objective of honoring the dedication of the temple to the god Saturn, or Cronus to the Greek. Originally the festival was celebrated on December 17th but grew in popularity and was extended to a week long event. A lot of feasts were held during this week, trickery and tomfoolery. A common practice was for slaves to dress as masters and masters to dress as slaves.
Great feasts would take place during the week of Saturnalia after the religious rites were performed in the temples of course. Visits to family and friends would take place and the giving of gifts was a common practice. Such gifts included wax candles and lamps, very common gifts by this time. It was believed that this was to light up the area and chase the spirits of the dark away.

So Yule and Christiams at some point in history came together and made a fusion and we see nowadays in Christmass many things that belong the the pagan festivals of old, like decorating the trees, the type of food we eat during this time, many decorations with elves, goats (the story of the Julbock), Reindeer, snow, pine trees, fir trees, the colors of Red and White and so on, things that were never common in the lands where Christ was born, but to keep this time of the year with its true essence and magic, we kept Christmas in a very pagan manner. During Yule it is a common practice to light Yule logs for Yule fires and to eat goat or boar and fill the air with singing and merriment. During Christmas it is common to light a Yule log, celebrate the birth of Jesus through the Virgin Mary, feast with family and friends, give gifts and witness religious rites in church. Throughout history the combining of these pagan festivals made it easier to convert the heathen pagans to Christianity.

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High in the hill there lived a goat
where the stars touch the earth
and the sky lights brought mirth
in the dwellings of the little folk

Whence it came, down the valley
which was blazing in golden light
from houses in gloom of night
searching for scraps to feed the belly

From house to house it went
disguised in clothes made of straw
people gave it something to gnaw
and a piece of wood it lent

The elders made a long red ribbon
from flaps of old worn garments
where wooden pieces and old parchments
were sewed by the women

Upon the goat's neck it was placed
the ribbon with messages to the gods
adorned with runes and colorful knots
to the hill it went as everyone gazed

Dawn came over the horizon
the Yule goat consumed by flame
of Sunna's warm steady claim
the cold valley it will brighten

Arith Härger

Cσρуяιgнт © 2013™

Happy Holidays to all friends! :D

Note: If you have any questions for me or if you want to see my artistic works, check out my Facebook page and make a Like if you can by following this link --> http://www.facebook.com/ArithHarger

Thor’s Hammer

Speaking of Norse symbols, Thor's Hammer or Mjölnir is one of the most used symbols of all time, I dare to say that it is more used nowadays than during the Viking Age, unfortunately most people use it and don't know its true meaning, they just use it because it is cool and most bands they like also use one of those.

Mjölnir is the weapon of the Thunder God Thor, which initially was thought to be made of stone, but in truth it was made out of iron, forged by the Svartálfar or black elves, along with the help of the dvergar or duergar (dwarves) named Sindri and Brokkr. 
Thor's weapon in the myths is a magical axe or hammer when thrown with the objective of destroying its enemies, it comes back to Thor's hands like a boomerang, it has also the capability of becoming so small that can be carried under the clothes. Mjölnir is to Thor what Gungnir (the spear) is to Odin, it is the very symbol of the god of thunder and his power, it is a weapon that all the enemies of this great god fear the most, especially the Jötnar, the giants of the Norse mythology. Most enemies try to lure Thor into their territories and somehow steal his hammer and Megingjörð, Thor's belt of strength and power. During the Viking Age, miniature pendant replicas of Thor’s hammer were very popular and often used by all in Scandinavia. In Iceland its variant was cross-shaped, while Thor’s hammers from Sweden and Norway tended to be made with an arrow or T shape. According to some researchers, the swastika shape found in East Anglia and Kent before Christianization, may be a variant of the same symbol. In Old Norse the name of Thor’s hammer is spelled either mjǫlnir or mjǫllnir. It is thought to be etymologically related to the English word mill and meal "to crush". Another version states it is related to the Russian word молния and the Welsh mellt, both meaning ‘lightning’. Mjölnir is usually interpreted as meaning "That which smashes", derived from the verb mölva "To smash". "Moer" which is one of the Portuguese words that survived the Germanic and Norse influence in the country also means "to crush" or " "to grind" and also "mill".
Many modern Thor’s hammer pendants try to feature the word Mjollnir in the Elder Futhark runes, simply replacing each letter with a corresponding rune. The procedure is incorrect. Mjolnir is an Old Norse word. Old Norse developed in the 8th century. Due to its difference as compared to its earlier form, Proto-Norse, Vikings were to reform their runic writing system. As a result, they adopted the Younger Futhark. By the end of the 8th century the Elder Futhark was not in use any more. If we were to write the name of Thor’s hammer in the Elder Futhark runes, we would have to reconstruct it in Proto-Norse. 
It is important to know that this symbol is a symbol of power, protection and fertility, most people who aren't heathens, or anyother pagans who practice the old Norse beliefs tend to label Thor's hammer as a symbol of hatred, racism and fear, which obviously isn't.

I always wear a Mjölnir made of Ox bone, it was a gift given to me by my girlfriend.

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Ales stenar - The Swedish "Stonehenge"

Ales stenar ,as it has been called, is a giant stone relic perched atop of a cliff in Skåne in southern Sweden, most call it the "Sweden's Stonehenge"
It’s been speculated that the 67 meter long (220 feet) stone ship has astronomical, geometrical, geographical, and mythological significance and that it is tied to the Iron Age and the Viking era. But a new group digging at the site finds no such evidence. Amateur researcher Bob Lind and his team instead believe that Ales stenar is a relic from the Bronze Age. But is it really? The carbon 14 dating system has provided seven results at the site, one indicating that the material used is around 5,500 years old, whereas the remaining six indicate a date about 1,400 years old. The latter is considered to be the most likely time for Ales stenar to have been created, which would place its creation towards the end of the Nordic Iron Age. And who was Ale? According to Scandinavian legend, Ale the Strong was a King and fought several battles. He ruled in Uppsala for 25 years and might be buried at Ales stenar. And the meaning of the stones? According to the Lind team, they form a calendar. “The pits where the stones are set in are perfectly aligned with the sun’s setting and rise. It’s statistically impossible that they ended up like that by accident,” explains geologist Nils-Axel Mörner, who works with Bob Lind.

The Oseberg Buddha

I have already written a post about the Oseberg ship and its finding during the early 90's of the XX century (1904) in a burial mound near Oseberg farm, in the Vestfold county in Norway.  One of the most well preserved findings of the Viking Age, unfortunately looted during the early Middle Ages, but even so what remained there was a really exciting and princeless findings for the archaeological studies.
Apart from the two female skeletons found there, which was the main subject of my previous writing about the Oseberg ship on another post, there were other burial goods, all the precious metals have been taken by the thieves, but what seemed to them to be worthless, is indeed a marvelous treasure the understand the lifes of these people during the Viking Ages. One of the most interesting Oseberg discoveries is the so called Buddha-bøtte or Buddha bucket.  It is a pail with two identical figures forming the joints of the pail handle. Both figures represent a man seated in the Lotus position. The head is flat and his face with the eyes closed has a very peaceful expression. The man’s breast is ornamented with red and yellow in the technique of champlevé enamel used in the decorative arts, as well as panels in the glass work technique of millefiori. Four swastikas on the enamel decoration have the common shape of those in the Buddhist tradition, in which this symbol represents auspiciousness and good fortune, which is indeed an universal symbol that dates from prehistoric times, very common in shamanic comunities and the Norse peoples also used it. But this artifact shows that the Vikings could in fact have met Buddhist missionaries during their expeditions.  It is also interesting to know about the Sixth-century Buddha statuette from northern India that was found on the island of Helgö, in Sweden, something that I have also written about and you can take a look at the lable of "Archaeology" which shows indeed the contact that the Nordic people had with other cultures, so far from their homeland, the trading routes that have been settled during this time, theexchange of culture, ideas, religion and the trade communities of other countries that have settled in the Norse lands and apparently they all got along pretty well, according to the archeolofical findings of Helgö. However, the Oseberg Buddha is different, it does not seem to have been imported from Asia. Researchers point to either Ireland or England as the possible places of origin. Hexham bucket decoration represents a flat human head with the same type of broad face and the same stress on the eyes. Among other parallels, the hanging bowl found at Löland, Norway, and the one found in the Maas, Holland, are similar examples. Both have human shaped handles with red and yellow enamel decoration. Perhaps the most striking parralel to Oseberg Buddha are the anthropomorphic escutcheons on the Myklebostad hanging bowl, which have similar elaborate champlevé in red, yellow and green, with panels of millefiori. However, the man is not seated, but standing.
Suffice to say that the identity of the man here represented remains a mystery. It could be Buddha himself, or a different type of foreign art that the Norse adopted and created the image of one of their leaders in this shape, or probably the representation of one of their gods? We might never know, but it is interesting to see how far people went and the many cutural diversity already existing in Europe in these ages.

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An unexpected visit

An unexpected visit

The cold afternoon of October brought a sudden harsh wind, which helped me to reach the train station faster as it pushed me down the street. With my luggage and backpack I went to the train station, but it was still too early for I was eager to get home. No one to be seen, the place was filled with the singing of birds and the whispering voices of leafs in the wind. I set down inside the train and the burning colours of dusk over the horizon passed gently through the window, those last western rays of the sun smoothly warmed my face, I closed my eyes and took a deep breath filling my lungs with a new vigor and exhaling the longing for home. Time went on without warning and before I realized the train was already ongoing, with few people scattered in the carriage where I was. The train with its bumps cradle me and I fell asleep, but was quickly woken by a sudden and abrupt stop of the train, I did not realize what was happening because my mind was still partly inside a dream as my eyes slowly opened for a still blurred reality. People went to and fro outside my window, there was too much comings and goings, but I stood at my seat in silence, waiting. In a few minutes the train was on the move again and I was glad, for every inch I left behind, it was the closest from home I could ever be. Usually on my way home or leaving it by train or any other kind of transportation, I go alone on my seat, forlorn with only my thoughts as a companion. The train is a remarkably adviser when we are left alone with our own mind, and exceptional good stories are made while the landscape outside changes, everything around us changes, and yet we remain the same and our mind wanders into fantastical places. As I was minding my own business and writing a few books in my mind, a young fellow sat in front of me with a smile from ear to ear, glittering brown eyes, sallow-faced and dark hair, he was no younger than me at that time. He didn't stop looking at me and smiling, I pretended that I wasn't noticing, but then I thought that he might knew me from somewhere or we probably met each other years ago, although it seemed to me that that could be the first time I was actually seeting my eyes upon this figure, how rude of me it was not greeting this stranger that seemed so eager to speak to me. I turned to him and as I was beginning to open my mouth to let friendly words come out, he anticipated my gesture and spoke first, and this is what he said to me:
- "Hello!" - said he without letting his smile fade away, and in answer I said - "Well Hello to you too... I'm terribly sorry but.. do we know each other? I don't seem to recal your face from any place" - and then I added - "I'm very good with faces, I never forget one, and yours isn't familiar.." - His eyes never blinked and as I was waiting for an elaborated answer from his part, he simply said - "No!.. we do not know each other." - an awkward silence filled the air and he continued - "This is actually the first time we met and I am so eager to share with someone my tale.." - well I could notice that, but I remained deprived of any commentary and waited - "You see... as I was entering the train I noticed you, as anyone else seemed to be busy, I turned to you to share my tale because I can't keep to myself such joy." - "By all means, please do tell." - said I, and thus our long conversation began, and every word he spoke to me I will now write to you as if it was the very person telling you the tale.

"Few years ago it seemed that I couldn't take any joy in living, while the world around me was falling apart, little control had I over the events of my daily life. I remember that I was completly listless and seldom a smile anyone could push out of me. My only plesure was to sleep, traveling in the realm of dreams, in places where anything was possible, but the many dreams I had, naught stood in waking memory, all I could remember is that I was free in such dreams, whatever those were. One day I woke up during the night, after an entire day lying on bed waiting for.. well.. anything that could lift my spirit, I got out of the door and went to the nearest woodland in the surroundings of my town. Upon reaching the site, I dove deep into the woodland, embroiled in shadow, till I found a glade that had nothing but tall grass and a rock here and there bathed by the moon light. Right in the very middle of this glade there was a woman, simple but beautiful with a long blue dress and a ribbon of the same colour on her long hair that seemed dyed with dried blood. At that moment I felt my own heart beating, a thing that I thought to be lost deep within my chest. She looked upon me and spoke with her eyes, her bright hazel eyes, and we both grabbed the hands of each other. The night went on and no word was spoken. The next day I had something to live for, and I eagerly waited for the night time to see her again in the exact same spot. As night came, I never looked back once I got out of the door and ran straight to the glade. So there she was, this time I had so many questions in mind and I poured out as many as I could. I got to know that she wasn't from the town nor anywhere near, but as a child she used to play in that place, so the last week of October she would always be there and we could always be together on that last week of that month.
I waited an entire year for that last week to come again and it finally did. I was thrilled to be with her again, and the night I have been waiting that entire year finally came and I ran for it. I was afraid that she wasn't there, but fortunately there was no disappointment, she was there indeed, she hadn't change a bit. I took my chances, I told her that I loved her, after all... I would only have the last week of October to be with her, and then I had to wait an unbearable year, suffocating in anguish, and that thought was excruciating. There was never a dull moment, all that we ought to have done we did until the last day of October finally came and I stood by her till the next morning, the first of November. I woke up alone in the cold morning, my clothes were completly soaked with the morning dew. For seven years we lived like this, we only saw each other one week every year, cursed week shouted I ! Naught was more unbearable than the long waiting, my heart was being torn asunder. None seemed to believe my story and the only advise given to me was to let it go, let that fantasy be kept hidden in the night vault where all desires should be locked away from the cold steel called reality. I waited for that week once more and for the last time, I was ready to put an end to this, when it came to me the reason why we could only be together during this time. I wept for too long until I forgot the reason why I was weeping. This morning, a couple of hours before this very moment, I found a way to be with her, to reach her in the far corners of my thoughts, and by the time the sun delves into the earth far in the western horizon, from out of the darkness a new light shall spring forth, she will come to me and I to her. Look friend, the hour is upon us, such joy I have that I couldn't contain it, I'm standing between the fine line of amazement and awe. The hour is Nigh! For a few frames of second you will be able to see the light coming from the veiled sky. Look friend, there it is.."

As I turned my head to look outside and back again, he was no more. By the gods! The look on my face must have been quite a sight! I got up and looked from one end to another of the carriage, too few were those standing there, some half asleep, others completly aloof. I looked down to my hands, I could feel the cold, I rubbed my hands and a warmer temperature started to come. I was quite awake! I sat down gazing the void of darkness outside and I saw my own image reflected on the window, I laughed, but not a loud laughter, only a subtle laugh shaking my head the way we all do when we realize how obvious something is.

Arith Härger

Cσρуяιgнт © 2013™

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The Julbock

Since we are entering in the season where the most awaited festivity of the year lies, I'll tell you about what the Julbock is, since that this December of 2013 I will not speak of any celebration during this season because I've written about this subject numerous times in other posts.

The Julbock or Yule Buck is an holiday custom, a goat made of straw, a little object filled with history that comes from the ancient times when Northern Europe hadn't been touched by christianization and people were still heathens, celebrating their own holidays.
I actually got my first Julbocks this year, I found them to be really interesting we back home we wanted to decorate the house with those during this season. We bought two little ones and I joked about those being Thor's goats... well I wasn't far from the truth, having something in the house and not knowing its real meaning isn't right for me so I have made some research.

Of course this little symbol has an obvious connection with Thor's goats, Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr (Toothgnasher and Toothgrinder) and the story of Father Winter comes again, there is much speculation to who is the real Santa Claus. Well, one thing we can be certain, this is something that goes back in history in a time before the Christian figure of Saint Nickolas. The figure of Father Winter tend to be linked to Odin or Thor.
There wused to be a Swedish folk custom that was directly related to Snorri Sturluson's account of Thor killing his goats for a feast and then raising them from the dead the next day, a story we don't get tired of hearing especially when it involves the adventure of Tjalf and Roskva. Unfortunately this custom seems to have gone since the mid twenty century (1900's). The performance is described as an actor, hidden by a coverlet made of skins and wearing a pair of horns, is led into the room by two men, who make believe that they are slaughtering him, while they sing verses referring to the mantles of various colours, whire, red, yellow and blue, which they laid on him, one after the other. At the end of the song, the Jolbock or the Yule Goat, after feigning death, jumps up and skips about to the amusement of all of those who were watching.

We usually see goats in the Norse folklore, most of the times the goat is the companion of the Tomte, a small mythological creature associated with the winter solstice, no taller than three feet, and has a long white beard and colorful clothes, very much like a Gnome. The Tomte or the Tomten, are usually known as the gift bearers, deeply connected with the goat and here we can see the connection to Father Winter, giving gifts, as Odin is often called, The Gift-bearer, The giver of gifts etc. 

There is also a Norwegian custom called the Julebukking, where people wear masks and costumes called Julebukkers and go from door to door and neighbors who receive them try to identify who is under the disguise. The Julebukkers will of course attempt to disguise their voices and body language. Offering Julebukkers treats and something to drink is a tradition. Once the Julebukkers have been identified and whatever was given to them is consumed, they move on to the next house. Another tradition requires that at least one person from the visited household join the band of Julebukkers and continue to the next household.

The Julbock is burned during the bonfires that are set during this season as an offering to the gods. Some people write messages to the gods in a piece of paper and place them in the red ribbon in the goat's neck.

It is interesting to see that this pagan symbol still survives to this day and I'm really happy that I got my first Julbock this year, from my mother side and from my father's father side my ancestors were Norse and Germanic, but many traditions were lost.. but the moment I saw that goat made of straw, something inside of me awoke, perhaps a feeling shared by my ancestors that still runs through my veins.

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World's oldest Marijuana stash

By the title you may find it an unusual theme to be written about by my part, but I assure you that it is totally in a historical and archaeological point of view.

Science today doesn't stop to amaze us, especially when it comes to the study of ancient civilisations and we get to know better the ways of our ancestors, which doen't stop to surprise us also. 
Almost two pounds of a plant material was found in a 2,700-year-old grave in the Gobi Desert, this material was still green and it has just been identified as the world's oldest marijuana stash. The tests that have been made to this ancient marijuana shows that it possessed potent psychoactive properties. It was thought that the ancient civilisations only grew the plant for hemp in order to make clothing, rope and other objects, but this finding shows it differently. It appears that these people were using the plant as a drug. Well.. there isn't anything new about this, what is new is that they had a lot of  plantations for the purpose, they didn't just go into the wilds and pick them up, or went to places where the plant was abundant, they already had personal gardens of it.

The excavations took place in the Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, China. The drug was found lightly pounded in a wooden bowl in a leather basket near the head of a blue-eyed Caucasian man who died when he was about 45. This person was buried with a lot of unusual and rare items of great value. Among these items there was a make-up bag, some bridles, pots, archery equipment and a kongou harp. It is believed that this individual was a shaman from the Gushi people, who spoke a language called Tocharian that was similar to Celtic, unfortunately now extinct. The test results of the plant found in the bowl revealed that it was cannabis.

The seeds mixed in with the leaves, along with their color and other characteristics, indicate the marijuana came from a cultivated strain. Before the burial began, someone had carefully picked out all of the male plant parts, ( which are less psychoactive ). Researchers don't yet know how this drug was administered because among the findings there wasn't any pipe nor any other kind of tool associated with the process of smoking. It might have been fumigated or orally ingested.

Apparently this plant was not only used to make clothes and other goods, as there is evidence that the Gushi people did their own clothes out of wool and made ropes out of reed fibers. Probably the marijuana was grown for medicinal and spiritual purposes, maybe that was its greater function.


Midgard is one of the most heard words when it comes to talk about the nine cosmic worlds of the Norse cosmology, as Yggdrasil is the spiritual connection between out world and the next, so is Midgard.
Midgard is often refered as being our very world, the plane we inhabit, which isn't incorrect because from an ancient point of view, our world was indeed thought to be in the very center of the universe and all the other spiritual worlds and physical worlds were scattered around our very own.

After some years of research, anthropological work with Norse/Germanic shamanic cultures still around and also after a lot of shamanic/spiritual work, we know now that Midgard is also the name of a spiritual world which is included in the group of the nine cosmic worlds of the norse spiritual beliefs. As I have said before, the spiritual plane is so vast that shamans believed to be divided in many worlds because when they came to one place to work with the spirits the landscapes were so different of the ones of the other places they visited, and seldom there is the chance to travel from one place to another in the spiritual world because of its vastness, but in truth it is one huge spiritual realm and Midgard lies in it. So now we will have to leave behind the historical concept we know about Midgard and focus on the spiritual Midgard, that is what I will be writing today.

The spiritual world of Midgard is very much like our own was many centuries, I even dare to say a few millennia ago. It is a vast plane in the spiritual world with the seasons similar to ours, in fact the seasons vary depending on the place you are on that continent as you might imagine. Think of it as traveling from the Northern parts of Europe to the Southern parts in the mediterranean and going all the way to the east to the end of Siberia, as you might know, the weather varies a bit bit still, in winter there is snow and it is very cold especially in mountainous terrains and at the summer is hot, but in some places its hotter than others. The spiritual Midgard is a place where people some times make a spiritual journey without even noticing it, and it is some much similar with our world in terms of weather, nature, atmosphere and landscapes that it will be even harded to know if we are indeed on another world by means of out of the body experience. Most of us if not all, have spiritual journeys, some more than others, it might only occur once every year, but in truth we have, and it is because of the similarities between Midgard and our mortal plane, that  we may easily travel there unconsciously than traveling to anyother spiritual continent/place/realm.

Midgard is surrounded by a vast ocean receiving the waters of the many rivers that exist in this continent. To reach anyother realm, be that Asgard, Jotunheim etc etc, from Midgard the journeys are only made by sea, there isn't any part of the continent that is connected to the other realms by land. However, the ocean surrounding Midgard has a lot of small islands. To the north-east of Midgard the division between Midgard and Jotunheim is narrower and the ocean enters into that passage creating the Great Salt River of Elivagar that runs to the south, creating the eastern boundary of Midgard with Jotunheim. To the west lies Vanaheim and in the south after passing the cold ocean one might reach to the shores where the dark forest of Myrkwood lies which is part of Midgard and the boundary to Muspelheim. 
No one is certain if Myrkwood really belongs to Midgard or if it is part of Muspelheim since it lies on that flaming continent. 
Myrkwood is a dangerous place, a vast dark woodland where a lot of feral creatures live.

In the introduction of the poem Völundarkviða, it tells us about a place called Ulfdalir and the brothers  
Slagfiðr, Egil, and Völund lived there in a house near the shores of the lake Úlfsjár, some people who travelled to the northernmost parts of Midgard tell us of a place called Ulfdalir that also has a lake, another dangerous place where outlaws and outcasts live, but in my opinion those people might be guarding this place because it is said that in Ulfdalir lies an entrance to the realm of Helheim, if this is true, I know not.
There is also a fortress called Ysetur near the borderlands to the North-east between Midgard and Jotunheim. A fortress built by the Aesir to keep an eye on the Jotnar, but I think it might have been abandoned, or it might be the house of other folk because the Aesir gods no longer have any member there. It is said that Thor lived there for a time.

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Norse Warrior Magic and Shamanism

So the other day I wrote a post about shamanism practiced in the Norse culture and how Seiðr was the area of expertise for women and if men practiced such magics, that would be seen Ergi (unmanly) in the Norse society. I have also talked about other ways of spiritual magic that would be much more acceptable in society when dealing with male magic practices, and this is what I will be writing today and go deep into that subject.

There are different types of shamanic practices, and for men among the Norse society, there were ways to practice magic that would be more socially acceptable.
The Norse/Germanic society was very much warlike, and as such, there were always those elite group of warriors who practice shamanic magics that would help them in battle, this was such a way for men to practice magic in a way taht wouldn't be considered unmanly and people would accept it without judgment.

In earlier periods of history, the elite warriors were militia groups or warbands, but with time and during the Viking ages, these groups became more restricted, more closed and ritual practices would be done away from society. We know of such groups like the berserkers as I have written on another post, there weren't ordinary warriors, their initiation rituals, fighting techniques, and the spiritual practices were as complex as anyother shamanic magic practiced by any shaman, these warriors could be considered as Shaman-Warriors.
Such warriors would work their rage in trance before they went to battle, we know of these berserkers as being warriors who would run into battle, sometimes without any armour or any other type of clothing, shouting and howling, putting their shield away, most of the time they would even abandon their weapons. This was a sign of who they were, people knew a berserker in the battlefield, this was their mark and their presence alone would strike fear in the hearts of their enemies. The animal symbols of these warriors were often the wolf and the bear, and while in battle-trance, these warriors would call upon the strength of such animals, working with their spirit totems to invoke such powers. Now this is when we enter another subject related to these practices, the totemistic warriors.

Totemistic Warriors

Totemism in groups was very often related to the military in ancient Norse/Germanic society. Many of these military societies had an animal as a totem, a wolf or a bear as I have written previously. Shamanicaly, these warriors would work with the spirits of these animals in order to possess the ferocity and strength of them when they entered into battle.

Initiation rites for new members of these totemic groups would start by living for a while in the wilds, in which the means of obtaining food would be by hunting or stealing from the near by villages. A link with the wild had to be made, the warrior would have to live such as wolves or bears, even learning to kill to survive. This link with the natural world was important because these warriors had to adopt the way of life of their totemic animal. There was a clear distinction of realities, the mortal world or the world of the society where rules were applied with the aim of maintain order, and the other reality which was the wild world, dark and magical, where chaos reigned and the only law was the law of the strongest. There is a clear distinction here as it is in Norse cosmology, which tells us that the forces of order are always in battle against the forces of chaos.
With the progress of these rituals, the individual would identify himself with the animal and was spiritually united with it. the Initiation ended in group when the individual was accepted by the "pack", wearing the skin of his totemic animal, the wolf or the bear, which would be a marking that claimed the position of this individual as someone who went beyond the limits of humanity and became something more, something more beastlike, more ferocious. People knew this, and there wasn't anything more frightening to encounter in battle than these kind of warriors.
These rituals were something more than just symbolic, this included having the behavior of the animal due to the individual being possessed by his totemic animal.

During the Viking Age society two totemic groups' names are often heard (and it seems they have been the most powerful and the ones that left more marks of terror in their enemies' hearts) the Berserkers / Berserkir which means "bear-shirts" and the úlfheðnar "Wolf-Hides" and it isn't that hard to know which animal was the totem of which group.

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Neolithic structure in Pielinen island

In the Lake Pielinen in Northern Karelia which is in Finland, a Neolithic stone structure was found on an island. Of course previously sites similar to this one have been found but only in the Ostrobothnian coastal areas. This is the first of this kind inland in Finland.

The enclosure of the structure measures 25 x 18 metres. Typical to structures such as this, its outlines are traced with earth mounds, and there are several piles of stones around it. Depressions have also been dug in the ground.

The axle of this complex is aligned with the winter solstice sunrise and the summer solstice sunset, this is a design that we have already seen before in other areas, such as the famous Karnak temple complex in Egypt and of course Stonehenge in Britain.

Structures like this one are often called  “jätinkirkot” which means “giants’ churches” in the Ostrobothnian tradition, they are usually circular or rectangular, and date back around 3,000 and 1,800 BCE. Fifty structures like this have already been found in FInland, located near the shores of the Bay of Bothnia, in Ostrobothnia. It is still unknown for what purposes were these Neoithic structures used for, most think it was for religious purposes, but that is a bit shallow, however, the astronomical accuracy of the complexes also points to agricultural purposes, as these could have aided in accurate observation of the seasons, and it was most likely build by the hunter-gatherers of the late Stone Age.

The roads of the Celts

On an old post I have written, I believe it was in 2012, I talked about the possibility that the Celts might have been the first to make a network of roads for comercial purposes and to link important settlements all over Europe, before the Romans made their own roads on top of the already existing ones of the Celts. As you might know, when the Celts started to spread all over Europe, 1000 years before they came to Irland and the others countries of Great Britain, the first place they have settled was the Iberian Peninsula, today Portugal and Spain, and they have settled mostly in the Northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula, but mostly in Northern Portugal and Galicia and Central Portugal between two great rivers, Durius ( today's Douro ) and Tagus ( today's Tejo ), and that area was exactly where the tribe of Celts later called Lusitanians by the Romans, have settled and thus the history of Portugal and their national symbols were born. Because the Iberian Peninsula was so important for many cultures, not just the many tribes of Celts, but also to the Greek and the Phoenicians, so trading routes were needed that led to the main land and the eastern parts of Europe to pass through the many regions where the Celts had settlements, because during this time trading was mostly done by sea and little was taken to areas further inland. So the Celts made those road networks that linked the important Hellenic and Semitic Ports to their own settlements all the way from the Iberian Peninsula as far as the Swiss mountains* and beyond probably to nowadays Czech Republic.

By the time the Romans emerged and started their campaigns across Europe, they already knew where to go and which places where the most important for the Celts and especially to the Lusitanians ( the greatest power in the Iberian Peninsula at the time, the most likely to resist and drive the Romans back ) because of the already existing roads, they followed the paths and easily conquered the lands, after that, they built their own roads on top of the already existing ones, as we can see in the case of the the Via Heraklea, an ancient route that runs a thousand miles in a straight line from the tip of the Iberian Peninsula to the Alps, and this also happened in other countries, including the ones in Great Britain, or at least, the parts where the romans could get.

My theory wasn't far from the truth, because it seems that the straight Roman roads has been exposed by a new book which claims that these extraordinary engineering feats were in fact the work of the Celts. The findings of Graham Robb bring a new enlightenment to this subject and places into question two millennia of thinking about Iron Age Britain and Europe and the stereotyped image of Celts as barbarous, superstitious tribes.
In truth, Druids and other Celt’s scientific and spiritual leaders, have been some of the most intellectually advanced personalities of their time, it is said that they have developed the straight roads in the 4th Century BC, hundreds of years before the Italian armies marched across Europe.
The first theory was around the Via Heraklea, when it was realised that it was plotted along the solstice lines through several Celtic settlements, mapping the positioning of hundreds of other towns and cities in France, Britain and Ireland and found that the Celt’s had organised them to mirror the paths of their Sun God, created a network straight of tracks following the solstice lines across the continent. This suggests that the Druids possessed map-making skills that historians believed were discovered centuries later. Unfortunately as you may know, their scientific and mathematical achievements have been long forgotten as there is no written evidence and their history has been replaced the stereotypes of them as wood-dwelling wildmen, it is a real pity that in the Celtic society it was a rule not to write any document that contained any history of this people, and all kind of knowledge was passed through the teachings trough language, in order to keep all practices within the community and not reasing others, which leaves the entire history of the Celts, shrouded in mystery and that is why nowadays it is hard to believe that such people did amazing and extremely sophisticated things. 

*It is important to emphasize these routes between the Iberian Peninsula and in the Swiss Alps, as the Celtic tribe with more power in ancient Iberia, was the tribe of the Lusitanians who were the first European people to form a nation by uniting with other Celtic tribes, and it is thought that the origin of the Portuguese, in this case the Lusitanians, was in the Helvetic Alps in Switzerland, the site chosen by the Celts in their early migrations.

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Totemism in the Norse Culture

Before the existance of deities in human form among the early tribal communities with shamanic practices, the symbols of power and spiritual guidance were the animals. Each person or a group of people had a totem, that totem could be an animal or a plant, and the individual was bound to the totem and they were in a mutual spiritual relationship. The totem was generaly held to be a guardian or even an ancestor, and one way or another, the totem was effectively a part of the human-self.
This kind of spiritual practice was known worldwide, but when talking about "Totem" we often visualise the American Indian tribes or the peoples from Alaska or the Inuit folk. But all over the world, this was one of the first spiritual practices to be held by many cultures, and seldom does the Norse culture comes into argument when speaking of Totemism.

To the Norse and other Germanic peoples, totemism is manifested in two specific prominent and powerful areas which are, the animal helping spirits, known as Fylgjur, and the patron animals of shamanic military societies who had their own rituals turned to warlike events.

What are the Fylgjur ?

We have all heard about the cats, ravens and other animals associated with witches, and this is something that comes from an ancient past, familiar spirits who are often the companions of witches in European folktales, but in truth, the early shamanic tribes who made their religious and spiritual practices around totems, had these animals to aid them, not just the cat and the raven, but all animals that you can think of, powerful animals that helped each person, and while in trance, these creatures aided shamans and shamans could take the form of those animals to better understand their ways and follow them to whatever quest while in trance, working in the spiritual world. In the Norse old spiritual traditions, these familiar animals were called Fylgjur ( plural ) or Fylgja ( singular )

 The Fylgja is an animal spirit, however, a human helping spirit is also called a Fylgja in Old Norse literature sometimes, this shows us that a totem can also be an ancestor. The well-being of the  Fylgja is intimately tied to that of its owner, as a result, if the  Fylgja dies, its owner dies as well. Its character and form are closely connected to the character of its owner. This helping spirit can be seen as the totem of a single person rather than of an entire group.

It dies you say? A spirit can die?

Well, lets put it like this, "dies", you see, when the animal spirit is linked to the body of the mortal, it can suffer whatever the mortal body might suffer, and that goes the other way also, because a shaman while in trance, his/her spirit can catch any disease on the othr world, the spirit might not be ready for some trials, and that is even worse than the other way around, because if the spirit suffers anything, it reflects on the body and a shaman can die, that happens to other people that aren't shamans but are able to have out of the body experiences, and people might lose their mind, go mad, cerebrally paralyzed, or catch a "flu" that the body isn't able to respond and dies, because the body without the soul/spirit, doesn't work properly. So you have to take care of your spirit animal as you take care of yourself or your own soul ( which is something most of us have no idea what to do ) because what ever happens to you or to it, it will reflect on the other and the spirit animal might "die" and leave you.

There are many gods and goddesses in the Norse pantheon that have personal totem animals which may or may not be Fylgjur. For example, Odin is particularly associated with wolves, ravens, and horses, while Thor is with goats, and Freya and Freyr with wild boars. It should come as no surprise, then, that their human devotees have personal totems of their own.

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The most ancient monotheistic Religion - Zoroastrianism

Being a pagan, doesn't mean we have to close our mind to all the other religions that work around a single deity, in fact I think that if we want to find a religion that makes us feel better with the world around us and helps us understand the course of life or a spiritual path that makes us happy and completed some how, we really should make a long study about religions, not all of them or we would take a long time, but most of them, different religions from different cultures, knowledge is one of the most precious things we have and no one can take it from us.
Today I am going to give you friends a little bit of History, about the most ancient monotheistic religion which is still practiced today in some parts of India, however, it isn't a religion that was formed in that country. Along this post, you will find out really good ethical values and also some similarities with Christianism, but that is normal, in a lot of ancient religions both monotheistic or polytheistic, we find a lot of similarities with Christianism because in truth the Christian faith is based on a lot of ancient belief from a lot of religions.

Zoroastrianism is the most ancient monotheistic Religion still practiced today, even if it wasn't, it would probably be the most ancient one to worship a single deity. It was formed on Ancient Persia in the area which ​the ​current country of Iran is. The pantheon of the old Iranian deities was vast and the religious philosopher Zoroaster made it simple when the god of all creation appeared to him in a prophetic dream, his name was Ahura Mazda. This god was the embodiment of all the previous gods and as such, this deity should be venerated as the sole creator god, the bearer of light, bringing the total goodness in the world. Unlike the Christian god, which in fact contradicts his nature of being the all mighty but in truth there is Satan which was created by him and is the oposite and negative force and God can't destroy him, so that doesn't make him the all mighty at all, Ahura Mazda was the creator of the cosmos and the very forces of nature but not all mighty because Angra Mainyu or Ahriman. which means Prince of Darkness, existed and was the dark side of all things, an evil spirit, the evil entity. As such, both of the deities fought battles, the good agaisnt evil and both sides created other deities to aid in the fight.

Thus Zoroaster wrote the first religious book called Avesta with seventeen hymns (Gathas), a religion that believed in the immortality of the soul, while the body dies and disappears, the soul remains and is subject to trial, a final judgment after all acts committed on earth. With an ethical code, behave well, have a right conduct.
 In this religion the sacrifice of animals was forbidden, the man must respect animals because the animals are here to serve us, the animals are the source of food, such as fire, fire also should not be touched by man, and as such was prohibited, therefore cremation of bodies was also prohibited.

Later, after the creation of the Christian religion, in this same Area of ancient Persia, nowadays Iran, another similar religion but yet perfected, appeared, it was called Manichaeism, which comes from the prophet Mani. This religion was the the final revelation, this was a religion which proposed unification of all other religions, the religion of light. Yet again, this religion had a God creater of the cosmos and put it to work, a force of nature that was not all powerful because there was one negative entity in the world, an opponent called Satan (Again you can see that Christianism never stoped attaching other's beliefs to their own religion, is there something that is really genuine in Christianity? of course, but few things compared to the many other peoples beliefs that were attached to this religion). Anyway, in this religion, the eternal battle of good against evil was still on, but this faith was a was a highly individualistic religion, God didn't choose what ones life would be like, nothing in human life was governed by his will, each person chose their way, would be the bad one or the good one, but in the end it had everything to do with personal choice, the free will.

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Cybele The first goddess

Throughout the history of humankind there has always been many deities to explain each thing in the natural world. At first, the tribes worked with shamanic pratices ( which many tribal communities still do nowadays ) and the powers of divine were seen in nature and each animal was sacred, each animal had abilities and a way of dealing with life itself in a particular way, and such abilties and gift we humans also needed, so by watching how nature worked, we did the same, and there was what we call Totemism, a community belief in which every human is thought to have a strong spiritual connection  with an animal, be it a physical or a spirit animal, each person would have a Totem and follow its wisdom. But then those divine powers started to appear in the form of human beings, and that human shape of the divine spread through many cultures worldwide, there were thousands of gods and goddesses and that gave birth to religions, some more complex than others, as the human mind evolved, so did the gods and so did the necessity of explaining other complex things of the universe. But the figure of a goddess has always been present, a figure that comes from the Neolithic and even before that, the Mother goddess of the Earth,, of fertility, the goddess who gave birth to all and even to the gods. We see many of these statuettes through time and the cult of this mother goddess lived through the ages and had great adhesion in many cultures, such was this adhesion that religions were formed around her.
To our days comes the name of Cybele, the goddess mother of all men, goddess of the earth and fertility, giver of life and sustenance, a goddess who makes the synthesis of previous various religious realities. She is the goddess of all and this figure was created according to the cults of the earth goddess that comes since time immemorial, Cybele was created in the central area of the Turkish peninsula, the zone where Phrygia was. Since she was also a goddess of rebirth, her cult was around the 4th of April during Spring time. There is even the myth of Attis the shepherd, when the goddess Cybele fell in love with him and made him her priest with the condition that he would always be faithful to her, but one day he fell in love with a nymph, breaking the vow of chastity and the goddess killed him, not with her own hands or any power, not in a way that she could lets say " get her hands dirty " but by driving him mad in such a way that he was forced to mutilate himself. But after his death he turns into a three or revives in human forme, either way, he comes back in one form or another at spring, showing the powers of rebirth of this goddess, the symbolism of Spring.

 This worship of the mother goddess had a great importance in Roman society, and as such, it has reached us spreading throughout Europe. So important was her cult that we see in history several Mother Goddess' cults all over Europe until the present day. Portugal was one of many European countries to be invaded by the Romans and the Roman cults were placed in the country, and as the Romans adopted various deities even Portuguese ones (Lusitanian) the Lusitanian people also adopted this goddess, Cybele, and in many archaeological excavations we met traces of the worship of this goddess, figurines and such. In Portugal the cult to this goddess was great in the Central, southern and coastal regions of the country. In the Northern regions of Portugal the Roman cults weren't that much, in many places didn't even existed, because those regions are more mountainous and much cooler and to create pathways for these regions was difficult and even the transportation of soldiers and goods was dangerous and the romans lost more than they won, so the Northern parts of Portugal the cults remained Celtic and Germanic.

After the christianization of Europe and most Lusitanians got killed, or adopted Roman cults and later Christian ones, and the old deities were almost forgotten, a cult around the virgin Mary replaced the Roman cult to Cybele, the goddess of fertility, nature and of humankind and of gods, became virgin Mary which is symbolicaly very similar in the way that she is the mother of the son of the divine powers. As such, the cult of the virgin Mary became so important to the Portuguese people, which in fact comes from a Roman pagan past.

In Ancient Rome the celebrations to Cybele were very violent, it started with the sacrifice of a bull ( Taurobolium ) and a sheep ( Riobolium ) and the priest bathed in the blood of these animals, symbolizing the birth, in blood leaving the womb, and also by the symbolism of these animals that are generators of life by consumption. The importance of the bull as a symbol of strength in classical antiquity, was so marked in the festivities to Cybele while the Romans remained in the  Iberian peninsula, that still somehow remained as a cult and we can still see it in the bloody Bullfighting in Portugal and Spain (a tradition of which I am totally against).

The blood bath of the priest in these celebreations is still visible in christianity, when the wine was poured onto the head of the faithful, literally bathed in wine as in antiquity bathd in blood, of course with the passing of ages it is now drunk, the symbolism is implicit.

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Stud farm of Alter - Neolithic past and funeral rituals

The Neolithic period was the starting of a new era for humankind, the great revolution and evolution of the human condition and social behaviour. It was the time when us humans started to produce our own food, we moved from a society of hunter-gatherers to a society of farmers and started to domesticate animals. Agriculture was found and the necessity of storing food in containers to carry them in a safe manner and to let the food sufficiently protected from the various climate variations, also gave "birth" to the creation of ceramics. The human being began to settle in one place instead of being a constant nomad searching for food, creating their own food, which led to healthy food habits which in turn led to the growth of the population. As such, people started to create villages all over the world and taking with them this new way of life, teaching others about agriculture and having their own domesticated animals.

Portugal has always been one of the first places in Europe to accept these great evolutions, a place where thusands of cultures throughout history have settled and left behind their stories and their cultures. For many years people thought that the megalithic phenomenon in Portugal had a lo of influences from the other mediterranean countries, but in truth, it has more in common with the megalithic structures from the Atlantic countries ( in truth, Northern Portugal has Atlantic influences and the very climate is an atlantic climate ) such as Irland, Scotland, Wales and Britain, but also a lot of influences from Northern European countries and Central Europe Countries.

Giving this big introduction, I will tell you about the Archaeological excavations that took place in Alter which is on Alentejo in Portugal, inside a Stud farm from the VIII century and still working, and the Neolithic findings there, 15 years ago, were amazing and in that time, was something totally new in Archaeology.
People knew about the "death places" of the pré-historic peoples, their megalithic monuments and every thing involving the cult of the dead and the buildings where they placed them, so the question was, where did they live? In what did they live? Was it some kind of an house? an Hut? Well, indeed it was found a place where these people had lived for a period of time, since this was the time where agriculture and ceramics were something new, the findings were from the period where people were starting to settle in one place. It was found that these people already pave the ground of their dwellings, but the walls of these places were natural stone formations and the roof was made of natural elements such as wood. leafs etc. But as it is a place that when it rains... it rains a lot, they built channels around these shelters, for draining the water, the whole place was kept dry, in fact, during the excavations, it rained a lot, which made it difficult to work, and so that the archaeologists found and cleaned these drainage channels and after almost 6000 years these were still in perfect working order and helped a lot during the excavations in winter. What was also found, were the first ceramic works ever found which indicates that these people were not just evolved but wealthy and Ambar was also found, and from where does the Ambar comes? That is right, from the Baltic Sea, which means that these people from what would be later called Portugal, already had trading roots with the Norther peoples of Europe and vs versa, in a period of time before the Egyptians, whom also had Ambar almost 3000 years after the Neolithic peoples of Portugal.
Among the findings in this excavation, there was also one of the most ancient ovens of all time, with the base perfectly intact, this shows the mark of evolution and the first sedentarization process of the  peoples of the Neolithic.

Now people knew how these people lived, but not during the entire year, only for an amount of time, but in that area, there was a lot of megalithic structures, and the remains in there weren't all equal in the way of placing the deceased or preparing the body of the funeral rituals. Some remains were intact, meaning that the people died in the zone while they were living in there, other remains were inside a bag made ​​of animal skin, with bones vwith isible marks on how the meat has been removed, post-mortem, leaving only the bone, which means that the person died away from the site, most likely during the commercials routes or elsewhere where they would live the other part of the year, and therefore the body was thus prepared for easy transportation by the family members and when the time came to return to the same place, the body could then be placed among the ancestors. Others were cremated, again for the easy transportation, others show that they were previously buried in temporary sites and then transferred to the place and some bones showned that they were cut in half and opened, again after-death, deliberately cut, no fault in the preparation of the body, for in that they did sa good job without damaging the bones, these bones were so cut open so that the inside of those, the marrow, could be eaten, a cannibalistic ritual, a very common thing in many cultures, the person that ate that, was absorbing the essence of the dead, to have a bit of it, and as so prolonging life.

One of my teachers of PreHistory and Archaeology said about this kind of ritual cannibalism, now this my shock some very christian folks, is that this practice has been around for thousands of years worldwide and it is still practiced nowadays in some places, and even Christ turning to his disciples Said, referring to the bread: "Take, eat, this is My body." And, referring to the wine: "This is my blood" (Mt 26:26-28) and for three days no one heard of him anymore after his death, and after those three days he appeared, he was resurrected and ascended to heaven, this might be the symbolism of his soul that left the world and went to the afterlife, while in those three days, his disciples prepared his body, making the same cannibalistic rituals as Christ instructed them to do, by eating his body and his blood and having his own essence. Something to think about.

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